The area of Borago officinalis L. (Borage)

Object description Download GIS-layers


The expert-botanist - T.N. Smekalova,
the GIS-expert - G.V. Talovina.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on data from herbarium specimens and specified according to maps having the following scale - 1:10 000 000.

The projection:

"Alber's Equal Area Conic for Russia", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons and actual location occurrence is shown by points.

Accuracy of classifier:

Point data were obtained from literature sources and herbarium specimens. Polygons are based on literature sources, herbarium samples, and field surveys by the authors. Light-colored points are locations referenced in literature sources. Dark-colored points are locations of species that were reported from herbarium samples.

Method of map production:

The following herbarium materials and literature sources were used to determine the species area: V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute, Moscow State University, Galushko (1980), Cherepanov (1995), Shishkin & Bobrov (1948), Grossheim (1948), Malyshev (1997), Malyshev & Peshkova (1979). The basic area of the species is in the territory of Western Europe. In the territory of the former USSR there is a northeast part of the area that is visible on the submitted map. In northern and northwest parts of the area the species is distributed in the administrative Northwest region, well populated by people, as a result of the ecological features of the species; it generally grows near areas inhabited by people, willingly escapes from cultivation and grows in secondary habitats. The East border of distribution of the species reaches the Ural Mountains and does not stray far from large settlements. The southern border of the species was determined according to the available data on the distribution of the species (Galushko, 1980). The Southwest and western borders of the area coincide with the frontier of the former USSR. Data were compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a new plant distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

BPI DVO the Russian Academy of Science, Vladivostok, Russia.
Cherepanov S.K. 1995. Plantae Vasculares Rossicae et Civitatum Collimitanearum (in limics USSR olim)[List of Vascular Plants of Russia]. St. Petersburg: Mir I Semia. 990 pp. (In Russian)
Galushko, A.I. 1980. Flora of Northern Caucasia. V. 2. Rostov: Publishing house of Rostov State University. 317 p. (In Russian)
Grossgheim, A.A. 1948. Manual of plants of Caucasus. Leningrad. 288 p.
Malyshev, L.I., ed. 1997. Flora of Siberia. Pyrolaceae-Lamiaceae. V. 11. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 115-116 p. (In Russian)
Malyshev, L.I. & G.A. Peshkova, eds. 1979. Flora of the Central Siberia. V. 2. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 733-734 pp. (In Russian)
Moscow State University [MWG], Moscow, Russia.
Shishkin, B.K. & E.G. Bobrov, eds. 1948. Flora USSR. V. 13. Moscow-Leningrad: Publishing House of Acad. Science. 451 p. (In Russian)
V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute [LE], St. Petersburg, Russia.

Right and copyright:

Copyright on this map and description belongs to its authors. Copyright on this picture belongs to 1) Jacint Ribas (Spain) ( ); 2) K.G. Tkachenko.

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