Phleum montanum G. Koch. - Mountain timothy.

Taxonomic position.

Family Poaceae Barnhart., genus Phleum L.


Phleum phleoides (L.) Karst. subsp. montanum (C. Koch) Tzvel., Phleum boehmeri var. ciliatum Griseb.

Biology and morphology.

Perennial plant, robust, hairless, cespitous. Root system is well-developed, penetrating to a depth of 120 cm. Stems erect, hollow, glabrous, cylindrical, 50-60 cm tall. Blade rolled when young, narrow (1.5-3.5 mm), rough, rather long, glaucous. Spike is narrowly cylindrical, 7.0-9.0 cm long, 6.0-7.0 mm wide. Spikelets are mono-floral. Awn-pointed glumes are 2.6-3.8 mm long; awns are 0.4-0.7 mm long. Blossoms in June; seeds ripen in August. Cross-pollinated by wind. Chromosome number: 2n = 14, 28, 42.


Occurs in the European part of former USSR (Carpathian Mountains) and the mountains of the Crimea and the Caucasus.


Xeromesophyte. Grows near bushes, on open, dry slopes and in mountain meadows in the Carpathian, Crimean, and Caucasian Mountains.

Utilization and economic value.

An excellent forage and pasture grass. Good palatability for cattle, sheep, goats and horses. Can be used for hay, haylage, silage (especially grass-legume silage) and for grazing. Improves soil structure and fertilization. Used for erosion control. Useful species for breeding new timothy varieties for mountain pastures.

Literature cited:

Brezhnev D.D., Korovina O.N. 1980. Wild relatives of the cultivated plants of flora of the USSR. L.: Kolos, 376 pp. (in Russian).
Fedorov A.A., ed. 1974. Flora of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 1. L.: Nauka, 404 pp. (in Russian).
Grossheim A.A. 1939. Flora of the Caucasus. Vol. 2. Baku: AzFAN, pp. 587. (in Russian).
Rodjevitz P.U., Schischkin V.K., eds. 1937. Flora of the USSR. Vol. 2. M.-L.: USSR, 778 pp. (in Russian).
Shelyag-Sosonko Y.P., ed. 1977. Grasses of Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 518 pp. (in Russian).
Tzvelev N.N. 1976. Poaceae USSR. L.: Nauka, 788 pp. (in Russian).

© N.I. Dzyubenko & E.A. Dzyubenko

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