Anthemis tinctoria L. - Golden Chamomile
Systematic position.Family Asteraceae, genus Anthemis L.
Synonym.Cota tinctoria (L). J. Gay.
Biological group.Perennial weed forming rootstocks.
Morphology and biology.Plant is 20-80 cm in height. Root stalky, fusiform, strongly ramified with additional roots; segments of the latter roots give rise to new plants. Stems straight or rising, often branchy in upper part, with curly hairs, later almost glabrous. Leaves 1-4.5(7) cm in length, 0.8-2(3) cm in width, pinnatisect, oblong, densely pubescent from below with oblong or linear segments; the latter pectinate-incised, having small lobules with white gristly tips. Inflorescences are solitary calathidia, 1.7-4 cm in diameter, located on long (13-17 cm) leafless stalks. Involucre 3-seriate; its leaflets monochrome or having a green stripe, pubescent with curly hairs; outer leaflets lanceolate; inner ones elongate-linear, with membranous margin. On edges(territories). Marginal flowers of calathidium ligulate, yellow; inner ones tubular only. Hemicarps brown or dark brown, oblong, cuneate with 5 ribs on each side, 2 mm in length, 0.5-0.75 mm in width, 0.5 mm in thickness, glabrous. Blossoming from July until August. Fruitfulness of one plant is 11,500 (sometimes to 40,000) hemicarps. Reproducing vegetatively and by seeds. Rosette of leaves only develops from seeds in the first year and it winters. Flower stalks appear in the second year.
Distribution.Western, Middle and Atlantic Europe, northern part of the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Syria, northern Iran; North America (introduced). On territory of the former USSR, the species is distributed over all European part, except for the Far North, in the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia, Central Asia.
Ecology.The species lives on outcrops of limestone on slopes of river valleys, on dry meadows, along roads and railway embankments, on garbage places, near habitations; it rarely meets in crops of field cultures. It prefers neutral, calcium-rich clay grounds.
Economic significance.The weed litters various cultures, meeting most frequently in clover crops during the second year of growing. Control measures include stubbling by disk and plough-share hoeing at depth of 8-10 cm with subsequent harrowing and packing, deep autumn plowing by plough with colters; partial winter tillage, growing of pea with oat for two years, mowing before flowering, cleaning of grain of fodder grasses gives good results; treatment by herbicides is used, if necessary.
Reference citations:Melnichuk, O.S. & Kovalivska, G.M. 1972. Atlas of the most widespread weeds of the Ukraine. Kiev: Urozhai, 204 p. (in Ukrainian).
Shishkin, B.K., ed. 1965. Flora of the Leningrad Region. V. 4. Leningrad: LGU. 360 p. (in Russian).
Simonov, I. 1969. Weeds and their control. Sverdlovsk: Sredne-Ural`skoe Publishing House. 132 p. (in Russian).