Area of distribution and weediness of Carduus nutans L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - I.N.Nadtochii,
GIS-specialist - I.A.Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of the map:

It is created on materials of maps of natural scale 1: 80 000 000 and larger and on literature data.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic content:

Vector map. Area of distribution is shown by polygon (main distribution) and by dots (sporadic distribution). Zone of weediness is shown by polygon.

Accuracy of the classifier:

The weed area is divided into zones of main distribution, sporadic distribution, and weediness. The zones of its weediness are shown, established by criteria of occurrence (% of fields where this species is found) and abundance (expressed as projective cover of this species in the field in % to the field area) (Tanskii et al., 1998), i.e.; where the occurrence of this species exceeded 50% with its abundance (projective cover) more than 15%.

Method of map production:

The areas of distribution and weediness are established according to the analysis of the open published maps and literature. The most comprehensive map compiled by Volkov A.N. (1935) is taken as a prototype. The northern border of the area in Siberia is partly drawn after Hulten E. & Fries M. (1986) as the other references indicate sporadic distribution of the thistle there (Krylov, 1949; Popov, 1959; Malyshev & Peshkova, 1979; Antipova, 2003). The northern border of the area in Middle Asia is partly given after Hulten E. & Fries M. (1986) too, because Vasil.chenko & Pidotti (1975) indicate the weed sporadic distribution, i.e.; in areas of irrigated agriculture along banks of channels and irrigation ditches. In the Caucasus, the area border is outlined after Hulten E. & Fries M. (1986), supported by Grossgeim A.A. (1949) and Galushko A.I. (1980). Dots of sporadic distribution are given after references (Antipova, 2003; Burdukovskaya & Pyzhikova, 2004; Tolmachev, 1962, 1977; Keller, 1935; Shishkin, 1965; Tsvelev, 1994; Malyshev & Peshkova, 1979; Kharkevich, 1992; Shmidt, 2005) and map (Hulten & Fries, 1986). The zone of weediness is allocated after the literature data with use of map of arable lands. Criterion of its allocation is the indication of the weed in the literature as being the main weed species in southern forest-steppe (to line Balta - Zinov.evsk - Poltava - Kharkiv - Ostrogozhsk - Borisoglebsk - Balashov - Atkarsk - Petrovsk) (Keller B.A., 1934).[И1]

Reference citations:

Antipova, E.M. 2003. Flora of northern forest-steppes of Middle Siberia: synopsis. Krasnoyarsk: RIO KGPU, 464 p. (in Russian).
Artokhin, K.S. 2004. Atlas of weed plants. Rostov-na-Donu: Kniga, 144 p. (in Russian).
Burdukovskaya, G.V. & Pyzhikova, E.M., eds. 2004. Bulletin of laboratory of biodiversity of flora of the Baikal Siberia, no. 2. Ulan-Ude: BGU, 112 p. (in Russian).
Galushko, A.I. 1980. Flora of the Northern Caucasus. V. 4. Rostov-na-Donu: Rostov Univ. 352 p. (in Russian).
Grossgeim, A.A. 1949. Keys to plants of the Caucasus. Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka, 747 p. (in Russian).
Hulten, E. & Fries, M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropic of Cancer: Konigstein. V. 1-3. 1172 p.
Keller, B.A., ed. 1934. Weed plants of the USSR. V. 1. Leningrad: AN SSSR. 324 p. (in Russian).
Keller, B.A., ed. 1935. Weed plants of the USSR. V. 4. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR. 416 p. (in Russian).
Kharkevich, S.S., ed. 1992. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. Saint-Petersburg: Nauka. V. 6. 428 p. (in Russian).
Krylov, P.N., Shishkin, V.K., Sergievskaya, L.P., Shteinberg, E.I., Krasheninnikov, I.M. 1949. Flora of Western Siberia. V. 11. Tomsk: TGU, 3094 p. (in Russian).
Malyshev, L.I. & Peshkova, G.A., eds. 1979. Flora of Central Siberia. V. 2. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1048 p. (in Russian).
Popov, M.G. 1959. Flora of Middle Siberia. Vol. 2. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, 920 p. (in Russian).
Rodionova, A.E. 2001. Segetal plants of Upper Volga Basin Region. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 99p. (in Russian).
Shabalina, I.A. 1975., ed. Keys to plants of Kirov Region. Part 2. Kirov: KGPI. 304 p. (in Russian).
Shilov, M.P., Shilova, T.N. & Bogdanova, M.A. 1989. New adventive plants in flora of Ivanovo Region. In: Tikhomirov, V.N., ed. Problems of study of adventive flora of the USSR. Moscow: MOIP, p. 28-29 (in Russian).
Shishkin, B.K., ed. 1965. Flora of the Leningrad Region. V. 4. Leningrad: LGU. 356 p. (in Russian).
Shmidt, V.M. 2005. Flora of Arkhangelsk Region. St.Petersburg: St.Petersburg University, 346 p. (in Russian).
Tanskii, V.I., Levitin, M.M., Ishkova, T.I. & Kondratenko, V.I. 1998. Phytosanitary diagnostics in integrated management of cereals. In: Novozhilov K.V., ed. Compendium of methodical recommendations in plant protection. St. Petersburg: VIZR, p. 5-55. (in Russian).
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1962. Keys to vascular plants of Komi SSR. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR, 360 p. (in Russian).
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1977. Flora of Northeast of the European part of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. V. 4. 312 p. (in Russian).
Tsvelev, N.N., ed. 1994. Flora of the European part of the USSR. St.-Petersburg: Nauka, V. 7. 317 p. (in Russian).
Vasilchenko, I.T. & Pidotti, O.A. 1975. Keys to weed plants of areas of irrigated agriculture. Leningrad: Kolos. 375 p. (in Russian).
Volkov, A.N., ed. 1935. Areas of distribution of the major weed plants in the USSR. Moscow & Leningrad: State Publishing House of Kolkhoz and Sovkhoz Literature, 152 p. (in Russian).

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