Area of distribution and weediness of Convolvulus arvensis L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist I.N. Nadtochii,
GIS-specialist I.A. Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and on maps of natural scale 1: 80 000 000 and larger.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons, and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where the weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported. The zone of weediness was determined according to criteria of occurrence (% of fields where this species is found) and abundance, where the occurrence of this species exceeded 50% and with its field abundance being more than 5-8 plants per sq. m. (Tanskii et al., 1998).

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. The map by Hulten & Fries (1986) was used as a prototype. The northwest border was determined according to Volkov (1935). The northern area was enlarged according to the work of Tolmachev (1977) and the herbarium of Moscow State University. Points of sporadic distribution within this area were determined according to Hulten & Fries (1986) and the following literature data on the harmfulness of the weed in Siberia: Nikitin (1983), Zakharenko (2004). The southern border was adjusted along the border of the zone of deserts. Central Asia is included in the main area based on the following sources: Hulten & Fries (1986), Koroljeva et al. (2003), Dzhanguzov & Loi (1975), Galimova (1975), Begimkulov (1990), Abdullaev (1975). In the Far East Volkov's area (1935) was expanded to the border of arable lands (Primorskii and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur Region) because of the following records on the weed danger in the Far East: Kazakevich (1935), Ul.yanova (1990), Korovina (1983, 1981), Chepelev (1977). Places of sporadic distribution were determined according to the following sources: Hulten & Fries (1986), Tolmachev (1977), Kharkevich (1989), Moscow State University, Malysheva & Peshkova (1979), Ramenskaya (1960), Tolmachev (1962), Ul.yanova (1980). The zone of weediness was determined according to literature data. Criterion of its allocation is the indication of the weed in the literature as the main weed plant in the zone of mixed and deciduous forests (Eastern part of the area, Transcarpathia and Carpathian Mountains), forest-steppe and northern and southern steppes, Crimea, the Caucasus, Eastern Siberia (taiga, steppe in the extreme south), Central Asia (Nikitin, 1983); a frequently met weed, main species in the Non-Chernozem zone according to Shlyakova (1989) and Spiridonov (2004); having big abundance in Byelorussia according to Kozlovskaya & Simonovich (1966); the most widespread species in the Ukraine according to Skorokhod (1951) and Mel'nichuk (1972); littering crops in the Chelyabinsk Region (Kazakevich, 1935), littering more than 80% of fields (Galimova, 1975) and having and abundance of 3-4 points in the Toshkent Region (Begimkulov, 1990); as a malicious weed having 30% occurrence and abundance of 4 points in Uzbekistan according to Abdullaev (1975) and Belolipov et al. (1990); the main weed having an abundance of 2-4 points in Turkmenistan (Mal'kov, 1936); having an occurrence of 89.6% in southeast Kazakhstan (Zharokova, 1981); noxious in agricultural zone of Kyrgyzstan (Sukhin, 1983); the most noxious species (Orlov, 1962), having 87% occurrence (Bagmet & Sokolova, 2003) in the Saratov Region; as a malicious weed in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories (Ul.yanova, 1990); as the main weed in Bashkiria (Dmitriev, 1937); as the most noxious weed in Siberia (Zakharenko, 2004); a weed in soya, grain, vegetable, fodder crops in Primorskii, Khabarovsk Territores (Korovina, 1983, 1981); a weed in the Amur Region (Chepelev, 1977); as a malicious weed in the Far East (Ul.yanova, 1990). The zone of weediness was drawn with the use of the map of arable lands (Koroljeva et al., 2003).
Data were compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Abdullaev A.A. 1975. Weed plants in maize of the Khorezm region and their control. Weed vegetation of the irrigated lands of Central Asia. Proceedings of Tashkent agricultural institute. Tashkent: Tashkent agricultural Institute. 25-30 pp. (In Russian)
Bagmet L.V., Sokolova T.D. 2003. Weediness of agricultural crops in a droughty zone of the Middle Volga Basin region. Vestnik zashchity rastenii (St. Petersburg - Pushkin), 3: 67-70. (In Russian)
Begimkulov Sh.Sh. 1990. Specific structure of weed plants in littering reserves in collective farm "Uzbekistan" of Communist district of the Tashkent Region. Weed plants of Uzbekistan and their control. Tashkent: Tashkent SKHI. 34-39 p. (In Russian)
Belolipov I.V., Abdullaev A., Sheraliev A. 1990. To a question of revealing specific structure of weed vegetation and types of contamination of cotton in farms of Karakalpak ASSR. Weed plants of Uzbekistan and their control. Tashkent: Tashkent SKHI. 4-13 p. (In Russian)
Chepelev R.D. 1977. Weeds of Amur Region. Blagoveshchensk: Khabarovsk publishing house. 72 p. (In Russian)
Dmitriev G.O. 1937. Main weeds of Bashkortostan and their control. Ufa: Bashgosizdat. 54 p. (In Russian)
Dzhangurazov F.H., Loi N.P. 1975. Weed plants in cotton of the Surkhan-Darya Region. In: Belov A.I., Burygin V.A., Kamilova F.G., eds. Weed vegetation of the irrigated lands of Central Asia. Proceedings of Tashkent agricultural institute. Tashkent: Tashkent agricultural institute. 16-24 p. (In Russian)
Galimova F.G. 1975. Some data on weed vegetation of the irrigated grounds of the state farm "Socialism" and the collective farm "Uzbekistan" of the Voroshilov district of the Syr-Darya Region. In: Belov A.I., Burygin V.A., Kamilova F.G., eds. Weed vegetation of the irrigated lands of Central Asia. Proceedings of Tashkent agricultural Institute. Tashkent: Tashkent agricultural institute. 61-66 p. (In Russian)
Hulten E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropic of Cancer. Konigstein. V. 1-3: 1172.
Kazakevich L.I. 1935. Struggle against littering of crops in the Chelyabinsk Region. Socialist grain husbandry. Saratov: Saratov Regional State Publishing House. V. 2: 129-142. (In Russian)
Kharkevich S.S., ed. 1992. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. Saint Petersburg: Nauka. V. 6. 428 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Korovina O.N., ed. 1981. Weed plants of wheat sowings in the USSR. Catalogue of VIR world collection. N. 320. Leningrad: VIR. 68 pp. (In Russian)
Korovina O.N., ed. 1983. Weed plants of the Soviet Far East (the list and distribution). Catalogue of VIR world collection. N. 374. Leningrad: VIR. 46 pp. (In Russian)
Kozlovskaya N.V., Simonovich L.G. 1966. Features of weed distribution on turfy-podzol soils of Polesye region. I n: Yurkevich I.D., ed. Geobotanical research. Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika. 56-64 p. (In Russian)
Mal.kov F.I. 1936. Main weeds of Turkmenistan and their control. Leningrad: VASKhNIL. 48 p. (In Russian)
Malyshev, L.I. & G.A. Peshkova, eds. 1979. Flora of Central Siberia. V. 2. Novosibirsk. 1048 p. (In Russian)
Melnichuk O.S., Kovalivska G.M. 1972. Atlas of the most widespread weeds of the Ukraine. Kiev: Urozhai. 204 p. (In Ukrainian)
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weeds in the flora of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 454 p. (In Russian)
Orlov I., ed. 1962. On control of weeds in Saratov Region. Saratov: Saratov Publishing House. 23 pp. (In Russian)
Ramenskaya M.L. 1960. Keys to vascular plants of Karelia. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Publishing House. 486 p. (In Russian)
Shlyakova E.V. 1979. Weed plants of the Nonchernozem zone. In: Brezhnev D.D., ed. Byulleten. VIR (Leningrad: VIR), 88: 64-69. (In Russian)
Skorokhod V. 1951. Weeds of Donets Basin and their control. Makeevka: Stalin Publishing House. 72 p. (In Russian)
Spiridonov Yu.Ya. 2004. Features of species structure of weed vegetation in modern agrocoenoses of the Russian Non-Black Earth Region. Plant Protection News (VIZR), 2: 15-24. (In Russian)
Sukhin V.S., Moiseeva T.M., Vasyuta Z.R. 1983. Weed vegetation of Kyrgyzstan. Frunze: Kirghiz Agricultural Institute. 83 p. (In Russian)
Tanskii V.I., Levitin M.M., Ishkova T.I., Kondratenko V.I. 1998. Phytosanitary diagnostics in integrated management of cereals. In: Novozhilov K.V., ed. Compendium of methodical recommendations in plant protection. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 5-55 pp. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1962. Keys to vascular plants of Komi SSR. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 360 p. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1977. Flora of North-East of the European part of the USSR. V. 4. Leningrad: Nauka. 312 p. (In Russian)
Ul.yanova T.N. 1980. Weed plants of the Magadan Region. In: Dorofeev V.F., ed. Works on applied botany, genetics, selection. Leningrad: VIR. V. 68(3): 34-42. (In Russian)
Ul.yanova T.N. 1990. Adventive plants in segetal flora of the USSR. In: Kondratenko V.I., ed. Abstracts of 1st herbology meeting in memory to N.A. Shipinov and V.A. Voevodin (10-12 April, 1990). Leningrad: VANTO. 33-36 p. (In Russian)
Volkov A.N., ed. 1935. Areas of distribution of the major weed plants in the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: State Publishing House of Kolkhoz and Sovkhoz Literature. 152 p. (In Russian)
Zakharenko V.A., Zakharenko A.V. 2004. Weed control. Zashchita i karantin rastenii, 4: 62-142. (In Russian)
Zharokova R.G. 1981. Weed plants in agrocenoses and role of Russian Knapweed in littering of grain crop rotations in southeast of Kazakhstan. In: Nurmuratov T. Protection of field cultures, pastures, and haymakings against pests, diseases, and weeds. Alma-Ata: East branch of VASKHNIL. 77-84 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004© I.N. Nadtochii & I.A. Budrevskaya (map, description, VIZR), N.N. Luneva (photo, VIZR).

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