Echinochloa crusgalli (L). Beauv. - Barnyardgrass.
Taxonomy.Family Poaceae (Gramineae), genus Echinochloa.
Biological group.Late summer eutherophyte.
Morphology and biology.Root is coronal, well developed, penetrating into soil down to 50 cm. Stem is up to 10-100 cm, ascending or erect, strongly fruticose at base. Leaves widely linear, acute - rough on edges, with firm medial vein. Inflorescence is contracted panicle. Spikelets are sessile, in groups, easily fall down at a maturing. Grain is chaffy caryopsis. The fruitfulness is 200-1000 (400 on the average) seeds on one plant, the weight of 1000 seeds is 1.5-2.5 g. In autumn caryopsides do not germinate even at stratification. The dormant period lasts about 15 months. In spring the seeds germinate at temperature 18-20° C from depth down to 12 cm, appearing as mass plantlets, the seeds can germinate till autumn. They do not germinate at temperature lower than 10° C. The plantlets are very responsive to low temperatures, often perishing at late spring frost. Seed vitality is 7 to 10 years. Flowering since May or June. Bearing since June or July till late autumn. Seed spreading by manure, excrements of birds, and by wind.
Distribution.The Caucasus, Western Siberia, south of Eastern Siberia, and the Far East, Middle Asia; south of Scandinavia, Central and Atlantic Europe, Mediterranean, Minor Asia, Mongolia, the Himalayas, Japan, China, Northern America, Southern America, Australia, Africa.
Ecology.Thermophil. Hygrophilous. Prefers mild by a mechanical structure, wet, uncompressed, rather rich, very gently alluvial soils. Grows predominantly in well humidified (irrigated and flood) fields, damp and wet meadows. Solitary plants are met in drier meadows and ruderal localities. Endures poorly cyclic humidifying. Widespread weed on tilled crops in steppe zone. In taiga zone loses its significance as eurysynusic weed plant, meeting seldom. Reaches northern border of agriculture. Abundance and occurrence decrease from the south northward. It is copious in the Chernozem zone, the Caucasus and the Far East.
Economic significance.Worst segetal weed. It is eurysynusic on sowings of tilled crops, cotton, cucurbits crops, rice, being less often met on grain and forage crops, and also in orchards. It is often found on pastures, in littered and wet localities. Protective measures are row-spacing intertillage in two directions in tilled crops; stubbling simultaneously with harvesting; accurate treatment of fallow fields. On rice fields keeping of water at a level not less than 20 cm and periodic sowing of dryland cultures are necessary.
Related References:Beshanov A.V., Shilov G.E., Vydrina O.S. Weed control on fields of Non-Black Earth Region. Leningrad. 1983, pp. 18-19 (in Russian).
Flora of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 1, Leningrad, 1974, p. 335 (in Russian).
Nikitin V.V. Weed plants of the USSR. Leningrad, 1983, p. 84 (in Russian).
Ul.yanova T.N. Weed plants in flora of Russia and other countries of CIS. St.Petersburg, 1998, pp. 100-101, 198 (in Russian).