Area of distribution and weediness of Sun Spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia L.)

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist - O.E. Kravchenko,
GIS-specialist - I.A. Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map of natural scale 1:4 000 000-1:55 000 000 and on literature data.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported. Within the weed area the zones of its weediness were determined based on the following criteria established by Shlyakova (1982): occurrence on more than 5% of fields and with an abundance of 2-3 points.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. The species maps from Hulten & Fries (1986) were used as a prototype. They were supplemented with the data of Grossgheim (1962), Nabiev (1983), the herbarium of the N.I. Vavilov Institute and the database of Petrosyan et al. (2003). Adjustments were made according to the references listed below. In the territory of the former USSR the species is now distributed in the European part, Crimea, the Caucasus, sporadic in Central Asia and very sporadic in Southern Kazakhstan. It is also sparsely distributed in Western Siberia. The area of weediness was allocated on arable lands in the basic weed area from the zone of broad-leaved forests to southern borders of the former USSR.Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Cherepanov S.K. 1995. Plantae Vasculares Rossicae et Civitatum Collimitanearum (in limics USSR olim)[List of Vascular Plants of Russia]. St. Petersburg: Mir I Semia. 990 pp. (In Russian)
Goloskokov V.P., ed. 1972. The illustrated keys to plants of Kazakhstan. V. 2. Alma-Ata: Nauka. 572 pp. (In Russian)
Grossgeim A.A. 1949. Keys to plants of the Caucasus. Moscow: Sowetskaya nauka. 747 pp. (In Russian)
Grossgeim, A.A. 1962. Flora of the Caucasus. V. 6. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 420 pp. (In Russian)
Gubanov I.A., Kiseleva K.V., Novikov V.S., Tikhomirov V.N. 1995. Keys to vascular plants of the center of the European Russia. Moscow. 560 pp. (In Russian)
Hulten E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropic of Cancer. Konigstein. V. 1-3: 1172.
Keller B.A., Lyubimenko V.N., Maltsev A.I., Fedchenko B.A., Shishkin B.K., Rodzevich R.Yu., Kamenskii K.V., eds. 1934. Weed plants of the USSR. V. 3. Moscow-Leningrad: AS USSR. 448 pp. (In Russian)
Kharkevich S.S., ed. 1991. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. V. 5. Saint-Petersburg: Nauka. 392 pp. (In Russian)
Komarov, V.L. & M.M. Il.in, eds. 1934. Flora of the USSR. V. 1. Leningrad: AN SSSR. 302 pp. (In Russian)
Kott S.A. 1955. Weed plants and their control. Moscow: Selkhosgiz. 2 edition. 384 pp. (In Russian)
Maevskii, P.F. 1954. Flora of middle belt of the European part of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhosgiz. 912 pp. (In Russian)
Malyshev, L.I. & G.A. Peshkova, eds. 1979. Flora of the Central Siberia. V. 2. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 1048 pp. (In Russian)
Melnichuk O.S., Kovalevska G.M. 1972. Atlas of main weeds of Ukraine. Kiev: Urozhai. 204 pp. (In Ukrainian)
N.I. Vavilov Institute [WIR], St. Petersburg, Russia.
Nabiev M.M., ed. 1983. Keys to plants of Central Asia. V. 7. Tashkent: Fan. 119 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1957. Weed vegetation of Turkmenia. Ashkhabad: AN Turkmen SSR. 581 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weed plants of the USSR flora. Leningrad: Nauka. 454 pp. (In Russian)
Peshkova, G.I., ed. 1996. Flora of Siberia. V. 10. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 254 pp. (In Russian)
Petrosyan V.G., Korneeva T.M., Nukhimovskaya Yu.D., Pavlov A.V., Bessonov S.A. 2003. Database: .Information search system on flora and fauna in reservations of Russia.. http://www.sevin.ru/natreserves/content4.html (In Russian).
Rubtsov, N.I., ed. 1972. Keys to vascular plants of the Crimea. Leningrad: Nauka. 552 pp. (in Russian)
Shishkin, B.K. & E.G. Bobrov, eds. 1949. Flora of the USSR. V. 14. Leningrad-Moscow: AN SSSR. 790 pp. (In Russian)
Shlyakova, E.V. 1982. Keys to field weed plants of Non-Chernozem zone. Leningrad: Kolos. 208 pp. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1974. Keys to higher plants of Yakutia. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 544 pp. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1976. Flora of North-East of the European part of the USSR. V. 3. Leningrad: Nauka. 293 pp. (In Russian)
Tsvelev, N.N. 2000. Keys to the vascular plants of North-West Russia (Leningrad, Pskov and Novgorod Regions). Saint Petersburg. 781 pp. (In Russian)
Ulyanova T.N. 1998. Weed plants in flora of Russia and other CIS countries. Saint Petersburg: VIR. 233 pp. (In Russian)
Vasilchenko, I.T. & O.A. Pidotti. 1975. Keys to weed plants of areas of irrigated agriculture. Leningrad: Kolos. 375 pp. (In Russian)
Visyulina O.D., Kotov M.I., Dobrochaeva N.M., Kuznetsova G.O., Morozyuk S.S., eds. 1970. Weed plants of Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 508 pp. (In Ukrainian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © O.E. Kravchenko & I.A. Budrevskaya (vector map, description). Picture taken from Melnichuk & Kovalevska (1972).

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