Galeopsis speciosa Mill. - Bee-nettle.

Systematic position.

Family Lamiaceae Lindl., genus Galeopsis L.

Biological group.

Annual germiniparous weed.

Morphology and biology.

Stem up to 1 m high, rough bristly, angular, ramified, swollen under nodes. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or rhombic, tapering at base, more rarely roundish or somewhat cordate, pointed at apex, dentate along margin, with dense or sparse hairs. Flowers having rather dense whorls. Calyx tubular-belled, haired; tube is 2 times shorter than each of 5 big leaf-like widened teeth. Corolla 2-3.5 cm long; its tube is 3-4 times longer than tube of calyx, with haired, pale-yellow, rather wide upper labia and dark-purple or lilac 3-lobed lower labia having two hollow horn-like projections and yellow spot at fauces. Nutlets obovate, 3-3.25 mm long, 2-2.25 mm wide, tuberculate, dark-gray or brownish, with black marble pattern. The mass of 1000 nutlets is 5-6 g. The maximal fruitfulness of one plant is 3600 nutlets. Seeds maintain germinating ability in soil for 14 years. Flowering period in July-September.


Western and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia. European part of the former USSR, the Northern Caucasus, Western Siberia, Eastern Siberia.


Grows on dry soils and sands in forest-steppe, steppe, semi-desert and desert zones.

Economic significance.

Weed of grain and tilled crops and flax; occurs in kitchen gardens, along roads, waste lands, fallow lands, near habitations. Control measures include removing the stubble after harvesting, early pre-winter plowing, inter-row cultivation of tilled crops, chemical weeding.

Reference citations:

Melnichuk O.S., Kovalivska G.M. 1972. Atlas of the most widespread weeds of the Ukraine. Kiev: Urozhai. 24 p. (In Ukrainian)
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weed plants of the USSR flora. Leningrad: Nauka. 308 p. (In Russian)
Shishkin, B.K., ed. 1954. Flora of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 21: 116-117. (In Russian)
Shishkin B.K., ed. 1963. Botanical atlas. Moscow-Leningrad: Izd-vo sel.skokhozyaistvennoi literatury, zhurnalov i plakatov. 238 p. (In Russian)

© T.D. Sokolova.


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