Area of distribution and harmfulness of Hibiscus trionum L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist O.E. Kravchenko & R.S. Ushakova,
GIS-specialist I.A. Budrevskaya

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of map of natural scale 1:15 000 000 and on literature data.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons, and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. The following sources were used to determine the area of distribution and harmfulness: Nikitin (1983), Shishkin & Bobrov (1949) and the materials of the VIR herbarium (N.I. Vavilov Institute). Other sources, as referenced below, were also used to make adjustments to the area. The northern border is located within the steppe zone. H. trionum is an adventive plant in the Far East and is now distributed on arable lands in the southern part of the Far East (Kharkevich, 1987). The area of harmfulness of this species was determined according to literature sources and also adjusted according to the map of arable lands (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Abdullaeva M.N., Butkov A.J., Ganiev Sch., Kovalevskaya S.S., Li A.D., Nabiev M.M., Pakhomova M.G., Sarkisova S.A., Zakirov K.Z., Vinogradova R.M. 1983. Keys to plants of Central Asia. Tashkent: Fan. V. 8: 119. (In Russian)
Barbarich A.I., Visyulina O.D., Vorobjev M.E. 1970. Weeds of the Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 508 pp. (In Ukrainian)
Buch T.G., Kachura N.N., Shvydkaya V.D., Andreeva E.R. 1981. Weeds of the Primorskii Territory and their control. Vladivostok: Dalnevostochnoe Publishing House. 256 pp. (In Russian)
Deza M.I. 1989. Keys to weed plants of Kirghizia. Frunze: Kirghizstan. 204 pp. (In Russian)
Dobrokhotov V.N. 1961. Seeds of weed plants. Moscow: Selkhozisdat. 414 p. (In Russian)
Fisyunov A.V. 1984. Weeds. Moscow: Kolos. 320 pp. (In Russian)
Geideman T.S. 1954. Keys to plants of Moldavian SSR. Moscow & Leningrad, 468 p. (In Russian)
Grossgeim A.A. 1949. Keys to plants of the Caucasus. Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka. 747 pp. (In Russian)
Keller B.A., Lyubimenko V.N., Maltsev A.I., Fedtshenko B.A., Shishkin B.K., Rodzevic R.Yu., Kamenski K.V., eds. 1934. Weed plants of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 3: 448. (In Russian)
Kharkevich S.S., ed. 1992. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. St. Petersburg: Nauka. V. 6: 428. (In Russian)
Komarov B.M. 1967. Keys to plants of northern Tadzhikistan. Dushanbe: Donish. 496 pp. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Maevskii P.F. 1954. Flora of middle belt of the European part of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhozgiz. 912 pp. (In Russian)
N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry [WIR], St. Petersburg, Russia.
Nikitin V.V. 1950. Flora of Turkmenia. Ashkhabad: AN TurkmSSR. V. 5: 272. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1957. Weed vegetation of Turkmenia. Ashkhabad: AN TurkmSSR. 581 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weed plants of the USSR flora. Leningrad: Nauka. 454 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V., Geldikhanov A.M. 1988. Keys to plants of Turkmenistan. Leningrad: Nauka. 680 pp. (In Russian)
Peshkova G.I., ed. 1996. Flora of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka. V. 10: 254. (In Russian)
Shishkin B.K., Bobrov E.G., eds. 1949. Flora of the USSR. Moscow & Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 15: 742. (In Russian)
Shishkin I.K. 1936. Weed plants of southern part of the Far East. Khabarovsk: Dalnevostochnoe Publishing House. 144 pp. (In Russian)
Takhtadzhyan A.L, Fedorov A.A. 1972. Flora of Erevan. Leningrad: Nauka. 396 pp. (In Russian)
Ulyanova T.N. 1998. Weed plants in the flora of Russia and other FSU countries. St. Petersburg: VIR. 233 pp. (In Russian)
Vasilchenko I.T. 1979. Keys to shoots of weed plants. Leningrad: Kolos. V. 2: 344. (In Russian)
Vasilchenko I.T., Pidotti O.A. 1970. Keys to weed plants of regions of irrigated agriculture. Leningrad: Kolos. 375 pp. (In Russian)
Vorob.ev D.P., Voroshilov V.N., Gorovoi P.G., Shreter A.I. 1966. Keys to plants of Primorskii Territory and Amur Region. Moscow-Leningrad. 492 pp. (In Russian)
Voroshilov V.N. 1982. Keys to plants of the Soviet Far East. Moscow. 672 pp. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2003 © O.E. Kravchenko, R.S. Ushakova & I.A. Budrevskaya (vector map).

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