Area of distribution and harmfulness of Lactuca serriola L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist O.E. Kravchenko, GIS-specialist I.A. Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of maps of natural scale 1:10 000 000-1:80 000 000 and on literature data.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons, and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. A base map was used (Hulten & Fries, 1986) and was adjusted according to the following sources: Volkov (1935), Krasnoborov (1997), VIR Herbarium (N.I. Vavilov Institute). The zone of harmfulness was determined according to the reference sources below and is located in arable lands of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones. Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Agaev M.G., ed. 1988. Main agricultural weeds in crops of the Leningrad Region. In: Catalog of VIR World Collection. N. 468. Leningrad. 112 pp. (In Russian)
Barbarich A.I., Visyulina O.D., Vorobjev M.E. 1970. Weeds of the Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 508 pp. (In Ukrainian)
Buch T.G., Kachura N.N., Shvydkaya V.D., Andreeva E.R. 1981. Weeds of the Primorskii Territory and their control. Vladivostok: Dalnevostochnoe Publishing House. 256 pp. (In Russian)
Deza M.I. 1989. Keys to weed plants of Kirghizia. Frunze. 204 pp. (In Russian)
Dorogostaiskaya E.V. 1972. Weed plants of the Far North of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 172 pp. (In Russian)
Fisyunov A.V. 1984. Weeds. Moscow: Kolos. 320 pp. (In Russian)
Goloskokov V.P., ed. 1972. The illustrated keys to plants of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: Nauka. V. 2: 572. (In Russian)
Grossgeim A.A. 1949. Keys to plants of the Caucasus. Moscow. 747 pp. (In Russian)
Hulten E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropic of Cancer: Konigstein. V. 1-3: 1172.
Keller B.A., Ljubimenko V.N., Maltsev A.I., Fedtshenko B.A., Shishkin B.K., Rodzevic R.Yu., Kamenski K.V., eds. 1935. Weed plants of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 4: 414. (In Russian)
Kharkevitch S.S., ed. 1992. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. Saint Petersburg: Nauka. V. 6: 428. (In Russian)
Kharkevich, S.S. & T.R. Buch. 1999. Flora of the Russian Far East (Flora exsicata). Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 250 pp. (In Russian)
Komarov B.M. 1967. Keys to plants of northern Tadzhikistan. Dushanbe: Donish. 400 pp. (In Russian)
Kott S.A. 1955. Weed plants and their control. Edition 2. Moscow: Selkhozgiz. 384 pp. (In Russian)
Krasnoborov, I.M., ed. 1997. Flora of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka. V. 13: 472. (In Russian)
Krasnoborov I.M., ed. 1984. Keys to plants of Tuva ASSR. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 336 pp. (In Russian)
Krylov, P.N., Shishkin, V.K., Sergievskaya, L.P., Shteinberg, E.I. & I.M. Krasheninnikov. 1949. Flora of Western Siberia. Tomsk. V. 11: 2630-3070. (In Russian)
Maevskii, P.F. 1954. Flora of middle belt of the European part of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhozgiz. 912 pp. (In Russian)
N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry [WIR], St. Petersburg, Russia.
Nikitin V.V. 1957. Weed vegetation of Turkmenia. Ashkhabad: AN TurkmSSR. 581 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weed plants of the USSR flora. Leningrad: Nauka. 454 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V., Geldikhanov A.M. 1988. Keys to plants of Turkmenistan. Leningrad: Nauka. 680 pp. (In Russian)
Ovesnov S.A. 1997. Synopsis of flora of the Perm Region. Perm: Perm University. 252 pp. (In Russian)
Plotnikov N.A., Levchenko E.K. 1965. Weeds of Western Siberia. Novosibirsk: ZSKI. 190 pp. (In Russian)
Ramenskaya M.L. 1959. Keys to vascular plants of Karelia. Petrozavodsk: Gosudarstvennoe izdatelstvo Karelskoi ASSR. 486 p. (In Russian)
Reverdatto V.V., Golubintseva V.P. 1930. Weed vegetation of irrigated and non-irrigated fields and deposits of the Southern-Siberian steppes (the south of Krasnoyarsk Territory). Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhozgiz. 80 p. (In Russian)
Rubtsov N.I., ed. 1972. Keys to vascular plants of the Crimea. Leningrad: Nauka. 550 pp. (In Russian)
Shishkin B.K., Grubov V.I., eds. 1966. Keys to plants of Bashkiria. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 496 pp. (In Russian)
Shlyakova E.V. 1982. Keys to field weed plants of Non-Chernozem zone. Leningrad: Kolos. 208 pp. (In Russian)
Syusev P.V. 1912. Abstract of flora of Ural within the limits of the Perm Region. In: Materials to knowledge of flora and fauna of Russian empire. Rel. 7. Moscow. 206 p. (In Russian)
Tahtadzhyan, A.L. & Fedorov A.A. 1972. Flora of Yerevan. Leningrad: Nauka. 396 p.
Tolmachev A.I., ed. 1974. Keys to higher plants of Sakhalin and Kurile islands. Leningrad: Nauka. 372 pp. (In Russian)
Tolmachev A.I., ed. 1974. Keys to higher plants of Yakutia. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 544 pp. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1977. Flora of North-East of the European part of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. V. 4: 312. (In Russian)
Ulyanova T.N. 1998. Weed plants in flora of Russia and other CIS countries. St. Petersburg: VIR. 233 pp. (In Russian)
Vasilchenko I.T., Pidotti O.A. 1975. Keys to weed plants of areas of irrigated agriculture. Leningrad: Kolos. 375 pp. (In Russian)
Volkov A.N., ed. 1935. Areas of distribution of the major weed plants in the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: State Publishing House of Kolkhoz & Sovkhoz Literature. 400 pp. (In Russian)
Vorob.ev D.P., Voroshilov V.N., Gorovoi P.G., Shreter A.I. 1966. Keys to plants of Primorskii Territory and Amur Region. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 492 pp. (In Russian)
Voroshilov V.N. 1982. Keys to plants of the Soviet Far East. Moscow: Nauka. 672 pp. (In Russian)

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