Area of distribution and weediness of Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist N.N. Luneva,
GIS-specialist I.A. Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and maps of scale 1: 5 000 000 - 1: 100 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where weed is considered a serious pest. A zone of moderate weediness was allocated according to criteria of occurrence (% of fields where this species is found) and abundance (Tanskii et al., 1998), i.e., where the occurrence of this species exceeded 50% with its field abundance (projective cover) being more than 15%. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.
Maps of L. squarrosa distribution in Russia taken from Volkov (1935) and Hulten & Fries (1986) were used as prototypes. Modern general distribution of the species in Russia was supported by the following references: Ul'yanova (1981, 1998), Nikitin (1983), Gubanov (2004). The zone of main distribution in the European part of Russia and adjacent CIS countries was confirmed and corrected according to the following literature data: Maevskii (1954), Shishkin (1957), Ramenskaya (1960), Yanchurkina (1066, 1980), Baranova et al. (1992), Orlova (1997), Rubtsov (1972), Tikhomirov (1975), Klirosova & Noskova (1975), Minyaev (1970), Shlyakova (1982, 1982 a), Prudnikov & Poluyanov (1996), Bakin et al. (2000), Grigor'evskaya (2000), Zernov (2002), Rodionova (2001). The northern border was defined according to Hulten & Fries (1986) and Volkov (1935), and was adjusted according to Tolmachev (1977). The species occurrence in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia was confirmed by the following data: Maisuryan (1927), Grossgeim (1967), Galushko (1980). Its distribution in Central Asia and Kazakhstan was confirmed according to the following literature data: Keller (1934), Nikitin & Gel'dikhanov (1988), Vvedenskii (1961), Korovina et al. (1983), Vasil'eva & Matsenko (1964), Ten (1974), Vasil'chenko & Pidotti (1975). The species distribution in Siberia was also confirmed according to the following literature data: Buddo (1969), Krylov (1907), Polozhii (1953), Dulepova & Sarapulov (1992), Anenkhonov (2001), Malyshev & Peshkova (1979), Popov (1957), Koroleva et al. (1973), Milashchenko (1978), Nesterova et al. (1982), Terekhina (2000), Fomina (1961). The species distribution in the Far East was defined based on Volkov (1935), confirmed by cartographic data (Kharkevich, 1991) and literature data (Tolmachev, 1974). The zone of weediness was defined according to Nikitin (1983), corrected according to data on weed occurrence, abundance, or harming ability taken from below references (except "Keys" and "Floras")and adjusted according to maps of steppe zone and arable lands. Sporadic distribution areas were determined according to herbarium data and according to the following cartographic data: Poyarkova (1956), Kharkevich (1991), Hulten & Fries (1986).

Reference citations:

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Baranova O.G., Il'minskikh N.G., Puzyrev A.N., Tuganaev V.V. 1992. The synopsis of flora of Udmurtia. Izhevsk: Udmurtian Univ. 140 p. (In Russian)
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Buddo I.S., ed. 1969. Keys to weed plants of Cisbaikalia. Irkutsk: Irkutsk Agricultural Institute. 48 p. (In Russian)
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