Area of distribution and weediness of Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Specialist-biologist - O.E. Kravchenko,
GIS-specialist - I.A. Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000

Accuracy of the map:

Map was created based on materials of maps of natural scale 1:20 000 000 - 1:55 000 000 and on literature data.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported. The zone of weediness was allocated inside the main area in the forest zone on arable lands where the weed grows with an abundance of 2-3 points and occurrence in fields of 4-12%. These statistics were determined according to the following sources: Shlyakova (1982), Nikitin (1985), Ulyanova (1998).

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. L. vulgare map from Hulten & Fries (1986) was used as a prototype. We determined the distribution of the species along with its subspecies based on Hulten & Fries (1986). The map was supplemented with the following data: Malyshev (1979), Tolmachev (1977), Kharkevich (1992), Petrosyan et al. (2003). Specifications were made based on references from the list below. The new northern border of the area in the European part is located on the border with forest-tundra according to data of Tolmachev (1977). We noticed further distribution of the species in the east, in the area of Lake Baikals, according to data of Malyshev & Peshkova (1979). The plant is alien and sporadically introduced to the Far East according to data of Kharkevich (1992).
Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Buch T.G., Kachura N.N., Shvydkaya V.D., Andreeva E.R. 1981. Weeds of the Primorskii Territory and their control. Vladivostok: Dalnevostochnoe Publishing House. 256 pp. (In Russian)
Cherepanov S.K. 1995. Plantae Vasculares Rossicae et Civitatum Collimitanearum (in limics USSR olim)[List of Vascular Plants of Russia]. St. Petersburg: Mir I Semia. 990 pp. (In Russian)
Desa M.I. 1989. Keys to weed plants of Kirghizia. Frunze: Kirghizstan. 204 pp. (In Russian)
Dorogostaiskaya E.V. 1972. Weed plants of the Far North of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 172 pp. (In Russian)
Goloskokov V.P., ed. 1972. The illustrated keys to plants of Kazakhstan. V. 2. Alma-Ata: Nauka. 572 pp. (In Russian)
Grossgeim A.A. 1949. Keys to plants of the Caucasus. Moscow: Sowetskaja nauka. 747 pp. (In Russian)
Hulten E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropic of Cancer. Konigstein. V. 1-3: 1172.
Kharkevich S.S., ed. 1992. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. V. 6. Saint Petersburg: Nauka. 428 pp. (In Russian)
Krasnoborov I.M., ed. 1984. Keys to plants of Tuva ASSR. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 336 pp. (In Russian)
Krasnoborov, I.M., ed. 1997. Flora of Siberia. V. 13. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 472 pp. (In Russian)
Krylov, P.N., Shishkin, V.K., Sergievskaya, L.P., Shteinberg, E.I. & I.M. Krasheninnikov. 1949. Flora of Western Siberia. V. 11. Tomsk: TGU. 3094 p. (In Russian)
Maevskii, P.F. 1954. Flora of middle belt of the European part of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhosgiz. 912 pp. (In Russian)
Maltsev A.I. 1939. Atlas of the major species of weed plants of the USSR. V.2. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhosgiz. 88 pp. (In Russian)
Malyshev, L.I. & G.A. Peshkova, eds. 1979. Flora of the Central Siberia. V. 2. Novosibirsk. 1048 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1957. Weed vegetation of Turkmenia. Ashkhabad: AN Turkmen SSR. 581 pp. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weed plants of the USSR flora. Leningrad: Nauka. 454 pp. (In Russian)
Petrosyan V.G., Korneeva T.M., Nukhimovskaya Yu.D., Pavlov A.V., Bessonov S.A., 2003. Information search system on flora and fauna in reservations of Russia. Russia: http://www.sevin.ru/natreserves/content4.html (In Russian).
Plotnikov N.A., Levchenko E.K. 1965. Weeds of Western Siberia. Novosibirsk: ZSKI. 190 pp. (In Russian)
Shishkin I.K. 1936. Weed plants of southern part of the Far East. Khabarovsk. 144 pp. (In Russian)
Shlyakova E.V. 1982. Keys to field weed plants of Non-Chernozem zone. Leningrad: Kolos. 208 pp. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1977. Flora of North-East of the European part of the USSR. V. 4. Leningrad: Nauka. 312 pp. (In Russian)
Ulyanova T.N. 1998. Weed plants in flora of Russia and other FSU countries. Saint Petersburg: VIR. 233 pp. (In Russian)
Vasilchenko I.T., Pidotti O.A. 1975. Keys to weed plants of areas of irrigated agriculture. Leningrad: Kolos. 375 pp. (In Russian)
Visyulina O.D., Kotov M.I., Dobrochaeva N.M., Kuznetsova G.O., Morozyuk S.S., eds. 1970. Weed plants of Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 508 pp. (In Ukrainian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 © O.E. Kravchenko & I.A. Budrevskaya (vector map).

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