Area of distribution and harmfulness of Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist - S.Yu. Larina, GIS-specialist - I.A. Budrevskaya.

Data of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of maps of natural scale 1:5 000 000 - 1:100 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons, and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where the weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported. Within the weed distribution area the zones of harmfulness were determined according to criteria of occurrence (the % of fields where this species is found) as well as abundance (expressed as a projective cover of this species in the field (in % of the field area))(Tanskii et al., 1998). The zones of harmfulness represent an occurrence of the species greater than 20% and a abundance (projective cover) greater than 15%.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. The area of distribution is based on the maps from Hulten & Fries (1986) and Volkov (1935). The eastern part of the distribution area is extended further to the east of the European part according to Volkov (1935). The areas of harmfulness are established according to Nikitin (1983) and adjusted according to the map of arable lands (Koroljeva et al., 2003). In addition to the data of Hulten & Fries (1986), the sites of sporadic distribution are determined according to Kharkevich (1988) in the Far East, Malyshev & Peshkova (1994) and Stepanov (1990) in Siberia, Dorogstaiskaya (1972) and Tolmachaev (1976) in the northern regions of the European part of Russia and Siberia, as well as Grossgeim (1950) in Caucasus. Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Agaev M.G., ed. 1988. Main agricultural weeds in crops of the Leningrad Region. In: Catalog of VIR World Collection. N.468. Leningrad: VIR. 112 pp. (In Russian)
Dorogostaiskaya E.V. 1972. Weed plants of the Far North of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 172 pp.(In Russian)
Grossgeim, A.A. 1950. Flora of the Caucasus. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 4: 311.
Hulten E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropik of cancer. Konigstein. V. 1-3: 1172.
Keller B.A., ed. 1934. Weed plants of the USSR. Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 3: 448. (In Russian)
Kharkhevich S.S., ed. 1988. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. Leningrad: Nauka. V. 3: 421. (In Russian)
Komarov, V.L & N.A. Bush, eds. 1939. Flora of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. V. 8: 696. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Korsmo E. 1933. Weed plants of modern farming. Moscow-Leningrad: State Publishing House of Kokhoz & Sovkhoz Literature. 416 pp. (In Russian)
Maltsev A.I. 1937. Atlas of the main weed species of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhozgiz. V. 1: 168. (In Russian)
Malyshev, L.I. & G.A. Peshkova. 1994. Flora of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka. V. 7: 312. (In Russian)
Nikitin, V.V. 1983. Weed plants of the USSR flora. Leningrad: Nauka. 454 pp. (In Russian)
Stepanov N.V. 1990. Floristic finds in Krasnoyarsk Territory. Botanicheskii zhurnal, 75(5): 725-731. (In Russian)
Tanskii V.I., Levitin M.M., Ishkova T.I., Kondratenko V.I. 1998. Phytosanitary diagnostics in integrated managemant of cereals. In: Novozhilov K.V., ed. Compendium of methodical recommendations in plant protection. Saint Petersburg: VIZR. 5-55 p. (In Russian)
Tolmachev, A.I., ed. 1976. Flora of North-East of the European part of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. V. 3: 294. (In Russian)
Ulyanova T.N. 1998. Weed plants in flora of Russia and other CIS countries. St. Petersburg: VIR. 343 pp. (In Russian)
Volkov A.N., ed. 1935. Areas of distribution of the major weed plants in the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: State Publishing House of Kokhoz & Sovkhoz Literature. 153 pp. (In Russian)
Zotova A.P. 1971. Weed plants and their control. Leningrad: Lenizdat. 144 pp. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

Copyright on this map and description belongs to its authors.
All rights reserved. Copyright 2004© S.Yu. Larina & I.A. Budrevskaya. Picture was taken from the book of A.I. Maltsev (1937) "Atlas of the main weed species of the USSR. V.1" (Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhozgiz, 168 pp).

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