Area of distribution and harmfulness of Viola tricolor .

Object description Download GIS-layers


object specialist I.N. Nadtochij, GIS-specialist I.A. Budrevskaja.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on materials of maps of natural scale 1:10 000 000-1:80 000 000 and on literature data.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic" USSR, 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0.

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons, and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where the weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data. The area of distribution was determined according to Chikov (1983) and Hulten & Fries (1986). The north border was adjusted according to Hulten & Fries (1986). The east and south borders were adjusted according to Chikov (1983) with the exception of the Caucasus which is adjusted according to Hulten & Fries (1986) and Grossgheim (1962). The zone of sporadic distribution in Kazakhstan was determined according to Pavlov (1960). The zones of harmfulness were determined according to Veselovskii et al. (1988).

Reference citations:

Chikov P.S., ed. 1983. Atlas of areas and resources of herbs of the USSR. Moscow: VNIILR, BIN, LGU, TGU. 319 p.
Grossgeim A.A. 1962. Flora of Caucasus. Moscow-Leningrad: Ac. Sc. USSR. V. 6: 208.
Hulten E., Fries M. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants, North of the Tropic of cancer. Konigstein. V. 1-3: 1172.
Komarov V.L., ed. 1935. Flora of the USSR. Leningrad: Academy of Sciences USSR. V. 15: 468.
Kozlovskaya N.V., Simonovich L.G. 1966. Features of weed distribution on turfy-podzol soils of Polesye region. In: Yurkevich I.D., ed. Geobotanical research. Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika. 56-64 p. (In Russian)
Pavlov N.V., ed. 1960. Flora of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: Academy of Science Kaz. SSR. V. 3: 460.
Samersov V.F., Padenov K.P., Soroka S.V. 2000. Weediness of crops in Byelorussia and methods of its reduction. Zashchita i karantin rastenii 3: 20-22. (In Russian)
Veselovs.kii I.V., Lisenko A.K., Man.ko Yu.P. 1988. Atlas-synopsis of weeds. Kyiv: Urozhai. 64 pp. (In Ukrainian)

Right and copyright:

Copyright on this map and description belongs to its authors.

Web design —
Kelnik studios