Area of distribution and weediness of Xanthium spinosum L.

Object description Download GIS-layers


Object specialist I.N. Nadtochii,
GIS-specialist I.A. Budrevskaya.

Date of creation:



1:20 000 000.

Accuracy of map:

Map was created based on information taken from open-published literature and on map of natural scale 1: 5 000 000.


"Alber's Equal Area Conic for the USSR", 9, 1001, 7, 100, 0, 44, 68, 0, 0

Basic contents:

Vector map. Area of species distribution is shown by polygons and sporadic distribution by points. Zones of weediness are shown by polygons.

Accuracy of classifier:

The weed area is subdivided into two zones, one representing species distribution, and the second where the weed is considered a serious pest. Points represent locations where sporadic occurrence has been reported. Zone of weediness was allocated according to criteria of occurrence (% of fields where this species is found) and abundance (Tanskii et al., 1998), i.e., where the occurrence of this species exceeded 50% with its field abundance (projective cover) being more than 15%.

Method of map production:

Published literature was reviewed, including Atlases, monographs and papers. Occurrence data were obtained from herbarium specimens, floras, monographs and papers. The X. spinosum area map was compiled based on the weed distribution map for the Far East (Kharkevich, 1992), reference data on the species distribution in floristic regions by Krasnoborov (1992), Pavlov (1965), and Komarov (1959) as well as the following sources: Vul.f (1969), Galushko (1980), Geideman (1954), Maevskii (1954), Shishkin (1967), Blagoveshchenskii (1966), Dobrochaev et al. (1987), Taliev (1935), Ul.yanova (1990). Coordinates of habitats were defined and plotted based on the following data: Krasnoborov (1992), Krylov (1949), Bakin et al. (2000), Grigor.evskaya (2003), Nikitin (1957), Vasil.chenko (1955), Tikhomirov (1975), Vvedenskii (1962, 1965), Tolmachev (1966), Shabalina (1975), Keller (1935). Herbarium materials from the All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection and Moscow State University were also used. The map of the weed distribution in administrative districts was used as a basis. The southern border of the area was adjusted along the borders of deserts and semi-deserts. The X. spinosum area in Middle Asia was allocated according to the following data on its distribution and weediness: Agaev (1989), Nikitin & Gel.dikhanov (1988), Nikitina (1979), Vasil.chenko (1955), Vvedenskii (1962, 1965). Sporadic distribution of the species was determined according to Shabalina (1975), Krasnoborov (1997), Kharkevich (1992), and VIR Herbarium. The zone of weediness was allocated according to the literature data and the map of arable lands (Koroljeva et al., 2003). Criterion of its allocation is the indication of the weed in the literature as a malignant weed in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories (Ul.yanova, 1990); a main species on herb fields in Moldova (Bondarenko, 1984); a malignant weed on vegetable crops in Crimea (Maevskii, 1954); a field weed in all cotton growing regions of Middle Asia (Agaev, 1989); and a weed plant in Tajikistan (Vasil.chenko, 1953). Data were then compiled through scanning and geo-referencing to develop a composite vector map. The biologist, together with the GIS specialist, drew a composite weed distribution area based on compiled data.

Reference citations:

Agaev M.G., ed. 1988. Field weed plants of cotton crops in the USSR (list and distribution). Catalogue of VIR world collection. Leningrad: VIR. 40 p. (In Russian)
Bakin O.V., Rogova T.V., Sitnikova A.P. 2000. Vascular plants of Tatarstan. Kazan: Kazan University. 496 p. (In Russian)
Blagoveshchenskii A.V., ed. 1966. Keys to plants of Moscow Region. Moscow: Nauka. 368 p. (In Russian)
Bondarenko B.S. 1984. Weed control on herb crops in Moldavia. Nemchinovka: Moldavian SKHI. 24 p. (In Russian)
Dobrochaev D.N., Kotov M.I., Prokudin Yu.N., eds. 1987. Keys to higher plants of Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 547 p. (In Russian)
Galushko, A.I. 1980. Flora of the Northern Caucasus. V. 4. Rostov-na-Donu: Rostov Univ. 352 p. (In Russian)
Geideman T.S. 1954. Keys to plants of Moldavian SSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 468 p. (In Russian)
Grigor.evskaya A.Ya. 2003. Anthropogenous transformation of vegetative cover of Central Russian forest-steppe. Voronezh: VGU. 40 p. (In Russian)
Keller B.A., Lyubimenko V.N., Maltsev A.I., Fedtshenko B.A., Shishkin B.K., Rodzevich R.Yu., Kamenskii K.V., eds. 1935. Weed plants of the USSR. V. 4. Moscow-Leningrad: AN USSR. 414 p. (In Russian)
Kharkevich S.S., ed. 1992. Vascular plants of the Soviet Far East. V. 6. Saint Petersburg: Nauka. 428 p. (In Russian)
Komarov, V.L., ed. 1959. Flora of the USSR. V. 25. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 631 p. (In Russian)
Koroljeva IE, Vilchevskaya EV, Ruhovich DI. 2003. Digital Arable Land Map. Laboratory of Soil Information of the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow, Russia [Based on: Yanvareva LF. (ed.), Martynjuk KN., Kisileva NM. 1989. Map of Land Use, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.].
Krasnoborov, I.M. 1997. Flora of Siberia. V. 13. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 472 p. (In Russian)
Krylov, P.N., Shishkin, V.K., Sergievskaya, L.P., Shteinberg, E.I. & I.M Krasheninnikov. 1949. Flora of Western Siberia. V. 11. Tomsk: TGU. 3094 p. (In Russian)
Maevskii, P.F. 1954. Flora of middle belt of the European part of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Selkhozgiz. 912 p. (In Russian)
Moscow State University [MWG], Moscow, Russia.
N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection [WIR], St. Petersburg, Russia.
Nikitin V.V., Geldikhanov A.M. 1988. Keys to plants of Turkmenistan. Leningrad: Nauka. 670 p. (In Russian)
Nikitin V.V. 1957. Weed vegetation of Turkmenia. Ashkhabad: AN TurkmSSR. 581 p. (In Russian)
Nikitina E.V., ed. 1979. Keys to plants of agricultural zone of Kyrgyzstan. Frunze: Ilim. 490 p. (In Russian)
Pavlov, N.V., ed. 1965. Flora of Kazakhstan. V. 8. Alma-Ata: AN Kaz. SSR. 497 p. (In Russian)
Shabalina I.A. 1975. Keys to plants of Kirov Region. Part 2. Kirov: KGPI. 304 p. (In Russian)
Shishkin B.K., ed. 1967. Keys to plants of Byelorussia. Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola. 872 p. (In Russian)
Taliev V.I. 1935. Keys to higher plants of the European part of the USSSR. Moscow: State Publishing House of Kolkhoz and Sovkhoz Literature. 648 p. (In Russian)
Tanskii V.I., Levitin M.M., Ishkova T.I., Kondratenko V.I. 1998. Phytosanitary diagnostics in integrated management of cereals. In: Novozhilov K.V., ed. Compendium of methodical recommendations in plant protection. St. Petersburg: VIZR. 5-55 p. (In Russian)
Tikhomirov V.N., ed. 1975. Synopsis of flora of Meshchera, Ryazan.. Moscow: Lesnaya promyshlennost.. 326 p. (In Russian)
Tolmachev A.I., ed. 1966. Keys to plants of Primorskii Territory and Amur Region. Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka. 492 p. (In Russian)
Ulyanova T.N. 1990. Adventive plants in segetal flora of the USSR. In: Kondratenko V.I., ed. Abstracts of 1st herbology meeting in memory to N.A. Shipinov and V.A. Voevodin; 10-12 April, 1990; Leningrad: VANTO. 33-36 p. (In Russian)
Vasilchenko I.T., ed. 1955. Weed plants of Tajikistan. V. 2. Moscow-Leningrad: AN SSSR. 321 p. (In Russian)
Vul.f, E.V. 1969. Flora of Crimea. V. 3(3). Yalta: AN SSSR, Nikitskii Botanical Garden. 397 p. (In Russian)
Vvedenskii, A.I., ed. 1962. Flora of Uzbekistan. V. 6. Tashkent: AN UzbekSSR. 632 p. (In Russian)
Vvedenskii, A.I., ed. 1965. Flora of Kirghiz SSR. V. 11. Frunze: Ylym. 611 p. (In Russian)

Right and copyright:

All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 © I.N. Nadtochii & I.A. Budrevskaya (description, map), N.N. Luneva (image).

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