Lycopsis arvensis L. - Wild (Small) Bugloss.
Systematic position.Family Boraginaceae, genus Lycopsis L.
Biological group.Annual, sometimes wintering weed.
Morphology and biology.Stem upright, simple or weakly branched, 10-50 cm of height, covered with setae. Leaves lanceolate; lower ones petiolate; upper ones sessile, wavy along margins, pointed or blunted, covered with setae rising from short tubercles. Inflorescence is a scorpioid cyme located at apex of stem and branches. Calyx deeply 5-partite, located on short setosed pedicel. Lobes of calix linear lanceolate, with white setae along margins. Corolla white, its tube bent at middle, with campanulate bend; fauces with dense scales. Nutlets reticulate-rugose, punctuate-tuberclate between wrinkles. Blossoming since May till August. Maximal fruitfulness of one plant is 900 nutlets. Shoots appear in early spring (April) and in the beginning of autumn. Autumnal shoots winter in the south. Minimal temperature for germination is 10-12°C.
Distribution.Grows in almost all European part of the former USSR, except for Moldova, Black Sea coast, Lower Don and Lower Volga regions, and Crimea. Inhabits In southwest part of Western Siberia to Omsk, in Ussuri district and Sakhalin in the Far East.
Ecology.It is distributed mainly in forest and forest-steppe zones, partly in northern part of steppe zone, much less often in black-soil belt. Frequently meets in ruderal habitats and overused pastures, on dry hillsides.
Economic significance.Segetal and ruderal weed. Grows on fallows, in kitchen gardens, gardens, crops. Litters also grain and tilled cultures. Control measures are agronomical actions and chemical weeding.
Related references.Maevskii, P.F. 1954. Flora of middle belt of the European part of the USSR. Moscow & Leningrad: Selkhozgiz, 912 p. (in Russian)
Nikitin, V.V. 1983. Weed plants in the flora of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka, 454 p. (in Russian)
Shishkin, B.K., ed. 1963. Botanical atlas. Moscow & Leningrad: Selkhozgiz, 504 pp. (In Russian)
Ulyanova, T.N. 1998. Weed plants in the flora of Russia and other CIS states. St.-Petersburg: VIR, 344 p. (in Russian)